# How Do Ionic Bonds Affect the Properties of Ionic Compounds

How Do Ionic Bonds Affect the Properties of Ionic Compounds.

The ionic bond isthe electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions in a chemical molecule. Iconic bonds arealso known as electrovalent bonds.  What substances are used to brand lemonade, lemon juice, sugar, water, and obviously table salt? Do y’all know how common salt is unlike from carbohydrate? Why is oil not miscible in water? Why does salt announced as crystals but not water?

All this happens considering the atoms of each compound are differently bonded to each other. In this article, we shall discuss the ionic bail definition, covalent compounds, ionic bond examples and types of bond chemistry.

## What is Ionic Bail?

Co-ordinate to the octet rule, an cantlet is near stable when there are eight electrons in its valence shell. To a solid-state accomplish stability, atoms lose, gain or share electrons present in their valence shell. An atom that loses ane or more valence electrons to get a positively charged ion forms a cation, while an atom that gains electrons and becomes a negatively charged ion forms an anion.

When in that location is a complete transfer of electrons betwixt the positively charged cation and the negatively charged anion, an electrostatic strength of attraction develops, known as the Ionic Bond. This commutation of valence electrons allows ions to reach electronic configurations of the neighbouring noble gases, satisfying the octet rule. A cation is represented by a positive superscript charge $$\left( + \correct)$$ to the right of the atom.

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An anion is represented by a negative superscript accuse $$\left( – \right)$$ to the right of the atom.

For example, when a sodium atom loses one electron, information technology will have i more proton more an electron, rendering it an overall positive $$\left( { + 1} \right)$$ charge. For the sodium ion, the chemical symbol is $${\rm{Due north}}{{\rm{a}}^{ + 1}}$$ or only $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{a}}^ + }.$$

Similarly, a chloride ion $${\rm{C}}{{\rm{l}}^ – }$$ is formed if a chlorine atom gains an actress electron. These ionic species are more stable than the atom due to the octet dominion.

### Forming an Ionic Bail

The chemic bail that is formed between $$2$$ atoms through the transfer of 1 or more electrons from the electropositive or metal chemical element to the atom of an electronegative or non-metal element is chosen an ionic or electrovalent bond.

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We know that the electronic configuration of the sodium atom is $$2,8,1$$. Information technology has merely one electron in its outermost shell. By donating this electron, information technology acquires the inert gas electronic configuration of Neon $$\left( {two,8} \right).$$

On the other hand, the electronic configuration of the chlorine atom is $$2,8,vii$$. It needs simply ane more electron to complete its octet to larn the inert configuration of $$\left( {2,viii,8} \right)$$ of Argon.

Hither, the sodium cantlet requires an adequate corporeality of free energy equal to its ionization free energy of near $$496\,{\rm{kJ}}/{\rm{mol}}$$ to remove an electron from its outermost shell to course a positively charged sodium ion $${\rm{Due north}}{{\rm{a}}^ + }.$$ Equally energy is consumed in this process, information technology is chosen an
endergonic
process.

On the opposite, the chlorine atom, deficient of one electron, accepts an electron; it releases energy equal to its electron affinity of the chlorine atom,i.east. $$349\,{\rm{kJ}}/{\rm{mol}},$$ to requite a chloride ion. Since energy is released in this procedure, it is known as the
Exorgenic
process.

Thus, the oppositely charged ions formed have strong forces of attraction chosen the electrostatic forces of attraction. These forces bring the ion closer to form an ionic bond. Thus, the electrostatic forces form the ground of an ionic bond.

Electrovalency– The number of atoms lost by ane atom or gained past the other atom is called electrovalency.

Electrovalency of sodium and chlorine in $${\rm{NaCl}}$$  is one. Hence, they are monovalent.

Similarly, in the formation of Calcium oxide $$\left( {{\rm{CaO}}} \correct),$$ calcium donates ii valence electrons to form calcium ions $$\left( {2,8,8} \right),$$ and oxygen gains two electrons to form oxide ions $$\left( {2,viii} \right).$$ Thus the electrovalency of calcium and oxygen in $$2$$ each, i.eastward. they are divalent.

One time the transfer of electrons forms the oppositely charged ions. The ionic bond formation between sodium and fluorine atoms is shown below.

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### Writing Formula of an Ionic Compound

To make up one’s mind the chemical formulas of ionic compounds, the following two conditions must be fulfilled:

1. The cation and the anion should follow the octet rule for maximum stability.
2. Ions should combine in a mode that the charges of the ions must residual out and the overall ionic compound is neutral.

The charges present on the anion and cation represent to the number of electrons donated or received. In ionic bonds, the net accuse of the chemical compound must be zero.

### Atmospheric condition for Formation of Ionic Bond

In ionic compounds, atoms need to fulfil several conditions to course an ionic bond. We are all quite familiar with common salt that we use to add flavour to food. Nosotros also know that chemically, table common salt is sodium chloride in which sodium and chloride ions are bonded together by ionic bonds. Various factors affect the formation of these ions and consequently ionic bonding, which ultimately gives rise to ionic compounds. The factors are –

(a) The number of valence electrons present in the atoms involved in bonding
-.
Atoms possessing one, two, or iii valence electrons which are positioned in groups $${\rm{I}}\left( {\rm{A}} \right){\rm{,Ii}}\left( {\rm{A}} \right){\rm{,}}$$ and $$13\left( {\rm{A}} \right)$$ of the modern periodic tabular array, tend to lose electrons and course positively charged species called cations.

On the other hand, atoms having $$v,{\rm{ }}half-dozen,$$ or $$7$$ valence electrons present in groups $$15,{\rm{ }}sixteen,$$ and $$17$$ of the modern periodic table, have a greater tendency to accept electrons and form negatively charged species called anions.

Thus, an element like potassium which belongs to grouping $${\rm{I}}\left( {\rm{A}} \right)$$ of the mod periodic table and has one electron in its outermost shell, is platonic for forming an ionic bond with Chlorine which belongs to grouping $$17$$ and has $$7$$ electrons in its outermost shell. Potassium Chloride thus, grade is, therefore, an ionic compound.

(b) The low ionization energy of the metal
– The ionisation energy is the minimum free energy required to remove an electron from the outermost trounce of a neutral gaseous cantlet.

Consider the formation of sodium ion $$\left( {{\rm{North}}{{\rm{a}}^ + }} \right)$$  from sodium cantlet. The ionization energy of sodium is about $$500\,{\rm{kJ}}/{\rm{mol}},$$ which is quite low. It can easily lose electrons and get converted into a sodium ion. This ion tin can farther take function in ionic bail germination with other anions such as $${\rm{C}}{{\rm{l}}^ – },{\rm{B}}{{\rm{r}}^ – }.$$ Thus, the lower value of ionization energy of metal will favor the ionic bond germination.

(c) The electron affinity of a non-metal
– By definition, electron analogousness is the energy released when an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom.

Consider an atom of fluorine; it has $$7$$ electrons in its outermost orbit. Information technology readily accepts 1 electron to complete its octet configuration. This process releases about $$328\,{\rm{kJ}}$$ of energy per mol. The fluoride ion thus formed possesses lower energy than the fluorine cantlet.

We know that lower energy corresponds to greater stability. Hence, the fluoride ion is more stable than the fluorine atom. Thus, the higher electron affinity of a non-metal will favour the formation of an anion and thereby will lead to a  stable ionic compound.

(d) The lattice free energy of the ionic compound
– An of import gene that affects the stability of an ionic compound is the lattice energy of the ionic compounds. Lattice energy is the energy released when one gram mole of a crystal is formed from its gaseous ions. In any crystal, the elective ions of the ionic compound are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction.

The stronger the forces of attraction, the higher is the lattice free energy and the more stable is the compound. This electrostatic forcefulness of attraction is adamant past
Coulomb’s Law.

Coulomb’southward police states that the force of allure $$\left( {\bf{F}} \right)$$ between two oppositely charged ions ($${\bf{Q1}}$$
and
$${\bf{Q2}}$$), which are separated in air past the distance $${\rm{d,}}$$ is given by the following formula which is as follows-

$${\rm{F = K}}\frac{{{{\rm{Q}}_{\rm{1}}}{{\rm{Q}}_{\rm{ii}}}}}{{{{\rm{d}}^{\rm{two}}}}}$$

Where
d
is the distance of the radii of the cation $$\left( {{{\rm{r}}^{1 + }}} \right)$$ and radii of the anion $$\left( {{{\rm{r}}^{2 – }}} \correct),$$ $${\bf{K}}$$ is the constant of proportionality. This relationship indicates that the bonny force depends on the magnitude of the charges ($$Q1$$and $$Q2$$) and the distance between these 2 charges. Thus, we can say that that the magnitude of lattice energy depends on the following 2 factors.

1. The magnitude of the charges of the ions.
2. Size of the ions

(i) Allow us consider two ionic compounds, Magnesium oxide, and sodium chloride. Information technology is causeless that the distance between these compounds is the same.

Magnesium oxide is a divalent compound, i.due east. both the magnesium cation and oxygen anion accept a charge of $$2$$. Whereas sodium chloride existence a monovalent compound, both the sodium cation and chloride anion conduct a accuse of $$i$$. Applying coulomb’southward law for both the compounds we become-

$${\rm{NaCl}};{\rm{F}} = \frac{{{\rm{m}}(1 \times 1)}}{{{{\rm{d}}^2}}} = {\rm{thou}}\left( {\frac{1}{{{{\rm{d}}^two}}}} \right)$$

$${\rm{MgO}};{\rm{F}} = \frac{{{\rm{k}}(2 \times 2)}}{{{{\rm{d}}^two}}} = {\rm{k}}\left( {\frac{4}{{{{\rm{d}}^ii}}}} \right)$$

This ways that the force of attraction between $${\rm{One thousand}}{{\rm{g}}^{two + }}$$ ions and $${{\rm{O}}^{2 – }}$$ ions in a crystal of magnesium oxide is $$4$$ times greater than that unipositive sodium and uni negative chloride ion in a crystal of sodium chloride. This explains the higher stability of $${\rm{MgO}}$$ compared to $${\rm{NaCl}}{\rm{.}}$$ Thus, the Higher the magnitude of the charges of ions, the higher is its lattice energy, the more stable is the ionic compound

(ii) Let us consider $${\rm{NaCl}}$$ and $${\rm{CsCl}}.$$ These 2 ionic compounds are univalent, i.e. the charges of the cations and anions are one. But, the ionic radius of $${\rm{Na}}$$ is smaller as compared to the $${\rm{Cs}}$$ ion. Due to the smaller radius of the sodium ion, both sodium and chloride ions are closer to each other compared to $${\rm{CsCl}}.$$ Thus, the forcefulness of attraction between the ions in $${\rm{NaCl}}$$ is greater than $${\rm{CsCl}}.$$ This makes sodium chloride more than stable than Cesium chloride.

(e) The departure in electronegativity between two atoms
– The electronegativity of an cantlet is a measure of an atom’south ability to attract electrons towards itself involved in a bond formation.

If the departure in electronegativity values of the atoms is $$1.7$$ or more, then the formation of an ionic bond is favoured.

Consider the molecules of $${\rm{NaCl}}$$ and  $${\rm{HCl}}{\rm{.}}$$

For $${\rm{NaCl;}}$$ Electronegativity difference $$= 3.0\left( {{\rm{Cl}}} \right) – \;0.ix\left( {{\rm{Na}}} \right) = two.1.$$

This helps the formation of a stable ionic bond in sodium chloride.

For $${\rm{HCl;}}$$ Electronegativity divergence $$= 3.0\left( {{\rm{Cl}}} \right) – \;2.1\left( {\rm{H}} \right) = 0.9$$

Due to the smaller electronegativity divergence, the bond between hydrogen and chlorine is covalent.

### Properties of Ionic Bond

Compounds composed of cations and anions are called ionic compounds:

In all these compounds, oppositely charged ions are held together past a strong electrostatic force of attraction. When an electropositive element like $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{a}}^ + }$$ loses its electron present in the valence beat to an electronegative chemical element $$\left({{\rm{C}}{{\rm{l}}^ – }} \right),$$ an ionic bail is formed.

Both the atoms thus attain a stable octet configuration. Similarly, metal-like calcium loses two of its outermost electrons to a non-metallic-like solid-state, oxygen resulting in an ionic bond between calcium and oxygen forming Calcium oxide $$\left({{\rm{CaO}}} \right).$$

ane. A metal always forms the cation, whereas a non-metal always forms the anion

2. Most of the ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature – The constituent ions of the ionic compound attract one another strongly and are arranged in a repeating iii-dimensional pattern. Information technology is this system that gives the crystal a characteristic geometrical shape.

3. Ionic compounds generally have high melting points – The ions present in ionic compounds are held together by very strong attractive forces. Ionic compounds have very high melting points, i.e. they need a lot of heat energy to pause the bond betwixt them.

4. Electrical conductivity – In solid-state, ionic compounds are by and large non-conductors of electricity. When heated to a temperature above their melting point, the electrostatic strength of attraction betwixt the ions breaks, and the ions become free to move. These costless ions tin can now let the passage of electricity.

5. Solubility in water – When an ionic compound similar sodium chloride is added to water, the negative finish of the water molecule attracts the cations and pulls them out of the crystal. Likewise, The positive end of the water molecule pulls the anions resulting in the dissolution of the compound in water. Thus, ionic compounds are soluble in polar solvents like h2o.

vi. Ionic compounds are brittle – When an external force is practical to the crystals of an ionic chemical compound, it shatters into pieces. This happens because, in the crystals of sodium chloride, the $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{a}}^ + }$$ ions and $${\rm{C}}{{\rm{l}}^ – }$$ ions are lined up against each other in a lattice with a strong electrostatic force of attraction.

When an external strength is practical, the alignment of the ions changes in a manner that the like charges come close together. This results in a strong electrostatic repulsion, and the ions movement autonomously. Equally the ions shatter into pieces, the shape of the crystals breaks.

### Covalent Character of an Ionic Bail – Fajan’s Rule

Carbon dioxide, h2o, and chlorine gas are some common examples of compounds having a covalent bail. On the other paw, few compounds like table table salt, magnesium oxide, and calcium chloride are ionic. But in reality, no bond or compound is completely ionic or covalent in nature. In an ionic bail, oppositely charged ions are formed when the electropositive element donates valence electrons to the electronegative element.

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When these ions approach each other, due to the increased nuclear accuse on the cation, it attracts the loosely leap outermost electrons of the big anion. Equally a outcome, the electron cloud of the anion gets distorted by its neighbouring cation. This process is known as Polarisation, and the power of the cation to attract the electron cloud of the anion is called its polarising power. The tendency of the anion to get polarised by the cation is called polarizability.

Charge and size of the cation

For case
– In the compounds, $${\rm{NaCl}}$$ and $${\rm{CaC}}{{\rm{l}}_2},$$ the ionic radii of sodium and calcium are very shut. However, due to the presence of a higher nuclear charge, the $${\rm{C}}{{\rm{a}}^{2 + }}$$ ion can polarise the electron cloud of chloride much more than strongly than $${\rm{N}}{{\rm{a}}^ + }.$$ Thus, $${\rm{CaC}}{{\rm{50}}_2},$$ is more than covalent than $${\rm{NaCl}}.$$

When $${\rm{CaC}}{{\rm{l}}_2}$$ is compared with $${\rm{BeC}}{{\rm{fifty}}_2},$$ it was observed that the cation $${\rm{B}}{{\rm{due east}}^{2 + }}$$ is much smaller in size than $${\rm{C}}{{\rm{a}}^{2 + }}$$ can polarise the electron cloud of chloride to a bully extent. This happens considering the positive charge on the beryllium ion is concentrated in a small expanse, whereas the same charge is distributed over a large surface area in calcium ions. Hence, glucinium chloride is more covalent than calcium chloride.

Size of the Anion

For example
– In the compounds LiF and LiI, the iodide ion is larger as compared to the fluoride ion. The outermost electrons are well shielded and held more loosely by the nucleus, making it easily polarisable by the cations. This is non the case with fluoride ions. As its size is smaller than the iodide ion, its electron is held strongly by its nucleus. Hence, LiI has a more than covalent graphic symbol than LiF.

Cations with pseudo noble gas configuration ($$18$$ electrons in the outermost shell), as in the case of $${\rm{CuC}}{{\rm{l}}_2},$$ take higher polarising power than cations having true, element of group 0 configuration $$\left( {{\rm{Due north}}{{\rm{a}}^ + }} \right).$$ Electrons in the $${\rm{C}}{{\rm{u}}^{two + }}$$ are not effectively shielded by its nucleus.

Equally a consequence, the cation exerts a higher polarising power over chloride ions and polarises its electron cloud to a greater extent. Although the cations in both the compounds have similar charge and radius, $${\rm{CuC}}{{\rm{fifty}}_2}$$ take more covalent grapheme than $${\rm{NaCl}}.$$

### Summary

Compounds containing ionic bonds are part and parcel of our twenty-four hour period-to-twenty-four hours life, from the flavouring amanuensis table salt to the tubes of toothpaste. From baking soda to washing soda, from bleaches to preservatives, all consist of compounds containing ionic bonds. Hence, to summarise, it is indeed needless to say that without ionic compounds, our survival is impossible.

### FAQs on Ionic Bond

Q.1: Frame the formula for the compound formed when magnesium and fluorine combine?

Ans: Mg forms a divalent ion of $${\rm{Thou}}{{\rm{thousand}}^{two + }}.$$ To obey the octet rule, Mg gets rid of the two valence electrons present in its valence trounce. Fluorine has seven valence electrons and would gain an electron to consummate its octet configuration, forming an F- ion. As $${\rm{M}}{{\rm{k}}^{2 + }}$$ needs 2 electrons to neutralize its charge, it combines with $$2\,{{\rm{F}}^ – }$$ ions forming an ionic chemical compound. Hence, the formula of the ionic chemical compound formed is $${\rm{Mg}}{{\rm{F}}_2}.$$ The subscript ii indicates that ii fluorines are ionically bonded to magnesium.

Q.two: Which elements virtually often grade ionic bonds?

Ans: Ionic bonds most unremarkably form betwixt metals andnon-metals. There is a big electronegativity difference between metals and not-metals. If the difference is $$1.7$$ or more, an ionic bond is favoured.

Q.3:

Does oxygen form ionic bonds?

Ans: Oxygen does non contain ionic bonds. There is a mutual sharing of electrons betwixt two oxygen atoms which results in the germination of a covalent bail. Sharing of electrons takes place to accomplish the element of group 0 configuration of argon $$\left( {two,viii} \right).$$

Q.4: Is water covalent or ionic?

Ans: Water is a polar covalent molecule, which hands dissolves nigh of the substances. Equally oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, the shared pair of electrons is more than attracted towards the oxygen atom. This results in the formation of a partially positive accuse over the hydrogen atom and a partial negative charge over the oxygen cantlet.

We promise that you might have at present understood a lot nigh the Ionic Bail concept. If there is something that you lot go stuck on, feel free to comment below. And we will become back to you lot at the earliest.

## How Do Ionic Bonds Affect the Properties of Ionic Compounds

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